USA: The Trump administration is reported to be planning to restore compliance credits for US automakers that could encourage greater use of low GWP refrigerant R1234yf in car ac systems.
In one of its proposal for a rollback of Obama-era clean car rules, the Trump administration had suggested eliminating compliance credits for automakers that install less-polluting air conditioners in their vehicles.
The Corporate Average Fuel Economy (CAFE) standards, introduced in the US in the 70s, seek to improve the average fuel economy of cars and light trucks. Manufacturer compliance with the regulations standards is calculated in credits. The use of a low GWP refrigerant like R1234yf gains credits under the regulations.
Starting with model year 2011, manufacturers have been able to trade credits with other manufacturers and transfer credits within their own fleets, which provides additional compliance flexibility.
Quoting an unnamed source “with knowledge of the matter”, the E&E News reports that the administration plans to restore the credits after hearing from “concerned” air conditioning and refrigeration companies.
Honeywell and Chemours, major manufacturers of R1234yf, both submitted comments to the US Environmental Protection Agency on October 26 last year setting out their objections to the proposed rule to amend the existing standards.
The drill does not produce the correct hole size some time with the good surface finish. A hole with precision size can be produced with a good finish off a pre-drilled hole using a reamer tool. The process of the enlarging hole is called reaming.
The reamer is commonly used to remove the minimum amount of metal (100 to 150 micron for rough reaming and 5 to 20 micron for fine reaming) from the hole. During reaming operations, the job should be properly supported and rigidly held. A stock wrench of appropriate size for holding the reamer is used. The reamer must be kept in its correct position about the job. It must be rotated slowly, and excessive feed must not be given. It should always be-be turned in the cutting direction. Sufficient amount of cutting fluid should also be used. When removing the reamer, it must be turned in the cutting direction. Reamers with blunt or chipped edges must not be used.
- Hand Reamer
- Machine reamers
- Taper reamer
- Spirally fluted reamer
- Straight fluted reamer
- Parallel reamer
- Adjustable reamer
- Expanding reamer
Some common types of the reamer used in fitting workshops are discussed as under.
1. Hand Reamer:
It is operated by hand to finish the holes and remove its ovality. Its cutting edges are backed off in the same manner as those of twist drills to give suitable clearance. It is made up of carbon or high-speed steel material. It is used for excellent internal turning in the hole by placing a tap wrench on the square end of the reamer.
2. Machine Reamer:
It is designed for slow speeds for use on drill presses, lathes, vertical milling machines, etc. It is chamfered on the front side of cutting edge. It possesses straight or tapered shanks and comprises of either straight or spiral flutes.
3. Taper reamer:
It is widely used for finishing taper holes smoothly with precision. It is also used to provide a taper to a drilled hole when a taper pin is to be used. It is performed with either straight or spiral flutes. It has spaces ground into the cutting edges or teeth to prevent overloading the entire length of each tooth of the reamer. These spaces are staggered on the many teeth to help in stock removal.
4. Spirally fluted reamer:
It performs greater shearing action than one with straight flute.
Carbon Monoxide is difficult to detect. It’s been coined the “silent killer” for a reason. It doesn’t have a smell, color, or taste.
It can be found in your home from your fireplace, gas ranges and furnaces. The build-up indoors can poison people and their pets who breathe it. In a five year span, 2010-2015, a total of 2,244 deaths resulted from unintentional carbon monoxide poisoning, with the highest number of deaths each year occurring in winter months.
As a licensed heating and air conditioning company, our commitment encourages us to share the consequences of this deadly gas and ways to help prevent carbon monoxide poisoning in your home.
Let’s get started.
What is Carbon Monoxide?
Carbon monoxide (CO) is an odorless, colorless toxic flammable gas.
What is Carbon Monoxide Poisoning?
When you breathe CO, it harms the ability of your blood to transport oxygen. The poisoning is a result of not receiving the adequate oxygen… or asphyxiation.
Symptoms and Signs of Carbon Monoxide Poisoning
image credit: CO toxicity symptoms, WikiMedia Commons
John Cunha, DO, FACOEP, an Emergency Medicine Physician, lists the CO symptoms from a headache, dizziness, and nausea to impaired judgment, visual changes and walking problems. The list is quite comprehensive.
If you suspect your symptoms are directly related to carbon monoxide, turn off the source (if you are aware of the source), move to fresh air and get away from your home as quickly as possible and call 911.
It is worth mentioning that carbon monoxide is slightly lighter than air, so it potentially rises. The scientific way of looking at it according to Healthy Building Science…
“CO indoors is usually generated from incomplete combustion (heat source) and therefore traveling in a warm air stream. Warm air is more buoyant and does rise.”
What Can Cause this Deadly Gas in Your Home / What Causes a Leak?
Household appliances ranging from boilers, heating systems and gas fires can be sources of carbon monoxide gas. Even running your car engine in an enclosed space can cause CO.
Accidental exposure to blocked flues and chimneys, which prohibits the gas from escaping can cause toxic levels.
Treatments for Carbon Monoxide Poisoning
According to the Mayo Clinic, immediately breathing pure oxygen to replace the CO with oxygen in your blood is the first step in your road to recovery.
In severe cases, hyperbaric oxygen therapy rooms are used.
“This therapy involves breathing pure oxygen in a chamber in which the air pressure is about two to three times higher than normal. This speeds the replacement of carbon monoxide with oxygen in your blood.”
Tips to Prevent Carbon Monoxide Poisoning
Check Your HVAC Vents for Proper Airflow
Throughout the year, furniture is often moved around and new furniture is brought into the home. Double-check around your house to make sure that nothing is blocking your heating vents.
Blocked vents are not only useless since heat can’t get out, but they can also drive your heating up. In addition, a blocked vent can result in an overheated furnace.
Check both your supply registers, heat blows out of these, and your return registers, the air is drawn into these.
Do you ever close vents in unused rooms to save money?
The Energy Vanguard Blog did an excellent and comprehensive job at explaining why you really shouldn’t close those vents. They went on to clarify unintended consequences of closing your vents.
- Increased duct leakage
- Comfort problems because of low airflow
- Cracked heat exchanger, with the potential for getting carbon monoxide in your home
- Condensation and mold growth in winter due to lower surface temperatures in rooms with closed vents
Install Carbon Monoxide (CO) Detectors and Alarms
Carbon monoxide detectors are a lot like smoke detectors. The difference – they detect levels of carbon monoxide rather than looking for smoke and fire.
You must consider installing CO detectors in your home. Because CO is both poisonous and odorless, it is vital that you ensure your home, family, and pets are safe from this toxin.
Safewise, home security experts, put together an awesome Carbon Monoxide (CO) Detector Buyers Guide. They cover the best detectors, from basic to smart devices, available on the market.
The guide also explains where to install and how to maintain your detector.
Also be sure to call a HVAC professional to investigate and resolve any issues.
Protect America, committed to providing every home with security solutions wrote a step-by-step guide on:
How to Test Your Smoke and Carbon Monoxide Detectors
Both alarms should be tested once a month at minimum or according to the manufacturer’s instructions. The NFPA (National Fire Protection Association) warns consumers that the “actuation of your carbon monoxide alarm indicates the presence of carbon monoxide (CO) which can kill you.”
NFPA also states the fact:
“A person can be poisoned by a small amount of CO over a longer period of time or by a large amount of CO over a shorter amount of time.”
Again if you sense you’re threatened by CO, be sure to call emergency services (fire department or 911) and immediately move to fresh air.
Schedule Regular Maintenance
Have your HVAC system and any other gas or oil burning system or appliance serviced by a qualified technician yearly.
The fumes from heaters and ovens, if not working properly or used the wrong way, can cause a life-threatening situation. A pre-season furnace cleaning and check-up by a trusted professional can alert you to potential problems or just confirm that your system is healthy and ready for winter.
A qualified technician will check for safety and operation, ventilation, and mechanical maintenance. With regular maintenance and a thorough annual inspection, a typical furnace will last for 20 years or more.
If you notice any strange odors or noises during the course of the winter, it may indicate a problem developing, and it should be addressed immediately to avoid total furnace failure or serious injury.
Replace Your Batteries Twice a Year
Make a commitment to change the batteries twice a year. Make it easy on yourself, whenever it’s time to spring forward or fall back (change the time on your clocks), replace your batteries.
Don’t Run Your Vehicle Inside Your Garage – Ever
Some people believe if the garage door is open, it’s fine to run the car.
According to T.H. Greiner, Ph.D., P.E. Agricultural Engineer, “the extremely high concentrations of carbon monoxide produced by an engine can raise CO concentrations in a closed building so quickly that a person may collapse before they even realize there is a problem.”
“Proven studies have shown CO concentrations reach the Immediately Dangerous to Life and Health (IDLH) concentration of 1,200 parts per million (ppm) in only 7 minutes when a small 5 horsepower gasoline engine is run in a 10,000 cubic foot room.”
Iowa State University conducted a study and found warming up a vehicle for only 2 minutes can raise CO concentrations.If you need to warm your car, remove it from the garage before starting it.
Do Not Heat Your Home With Your Gas Oven
While it may seem like a handy alternative, never use your oven to heat your home. An overworked, unattended oven can cause an explosion, as it is simply not built to run for extended periods of time.
Deadly CO gas can be given off from the gas flame that is intended to heat the oven.
Be Cautious When Using Fuel-Burning Space Heaters
Space heaters require regular attention while in use. The maximum temperature of the unit should be regulated and all materials should be kept at least three feet away from the unit.
Bear in mind that space heaters account for approximately one-third of home heating fires and 80 percent of home heating-related deaths every year. Never forget to turn off portable heaters when leaving the house or going to bed.
Only use space heaters in well-ventilated areas. Any space heater (fuel or electric) can be a fire hazard if not used properly and should be used with caution.
Leading causes of carbon monoxide in your home can be from faulty furnaces, water heaters, stoves, and fireplaces. It’s critical to take the necessary precautions to keep a carbon monoxide free home. It could be a simple venting problem. If left unchecked, it could escalate into a carbon monoxide problem.
Have your HVAC inspected and cleaned every year by a professional. With proper maintenance, your furnace will work more efficiently, and save you money on expensive energy costs and most importantly…
Keep your family safe.
USA: Washington state lawmakers have passed House Bill 1112, which phases out the use of HFC refrigerants.
The bill was passed by 30 votes to 19 by the senate legislature on Monday, and now merely requires signing by Washington state governor Jay Inslee.
The bill will phase out the use of hydrofluorocarbons in various applications in Washington, in a manner similar to the regulations that were recently vacated by the Environmental Protection Agency.
“Because the impacts of climate change will not wait until congress acts to clarify the scope of the environmental protection agency’s authority, it falls to the states to provide leadership on phasing out hydrofluorocarbons,” the bill says. “Doing so will not only help the climate, but will help American businesses retain their positions as global leaders in air conditioning and refrigerant technologies.”
The move follows the state of California, which enacted unilateral prohibitions on high GWP HFCs on January 1 through the California Cooling Act. Both states are members of the US Climate Alliance, a bipartisan coalition of 23 governors committed to reducing greenhouse gas emissions consistent with the goals of the Paris Agreement.
Unfortunately many in construction don’t realize how important it is to be able to communicate properly. Many don’t see the necessity of being able to write properly. Yet, project managers have to write letters all the time. Some of these letters could literally be worth millions of dollars. Why wouldn’t we want to put the effort into producing a clear and succinct letter that will convince our clients and customers to award a project to our company, or grant the variation claim we’ve submitted.
So let’s have a quick English lesson – a lesson on writing project letters!
- Have a date.
- Have a unique reference number.
- Be addressed to the correct person (the contract normally specifies who that person is, as well as who should be sent copies. If you’re unsure contact the company to find out who the right person is). Oh, by the way, do spell their name correctly – you don’t want to annoy the person before they’ve even started reading your letter!
- Have a heading, including the project reference name and number (letters to the client should use the reference name and number in the contract document), and a second heading line containing the subject matter.
- Have an introduction, normally a brief overview of the subject within the letter.
- Include the body, containing the facts and supporting information (where the supporting information is lengthy or includes numbers, calculations, and diagrams, consideration should be given to inserting these as appendices, and including only the summary of the documents in the body of the letter, referring the reader to the relevant appendix or attachment).
- Have a conclusion which summarises the facts and indicates the required future course of action.
- Be logical – state the facts simply and in a logical manner that is easy to follow. Don’t assume the person reading the letter is familiar with the project, or discussions that have occurred on the project.
- Be confined to one topic, or a few similar topics. Rather write a new letter for a different unrelated topic.
- Be concise and in simple language. Avoid lengthy sentences.
- Not be contradictory.
- Not use emotive language. Don’t get emotional or abusive. Simply state the facts. You don’t want to later regret the things you wrote.
- Be checked for spelling and typographical errors (if you know your grammar is poor request, someone, to check the letter). As a young project manager, my manager always checked variation claim letters before I submitted them to the client. Frequently they came back with multiple errors highlighted in red ink – yes, it did feel like I was back at school, but they were important lessons.
- Be arranged in easily readable paragraphs. Don’t just ramble on, with one thought leading into the next one.
- Avoid using slang.
- Ensure that when acronyms and abbreviations are used that these are explained, or are clearly understood by the reader and that they are used consistently in the letter.
- Be numbered correctly and consistently when it’s required.
- Use consistent text (resist the urge to use text that is in capitals, bold, in color or in italics to highlight a point).
- Use exclamation and question marks sparingly.
- Quote the correct clauses from the contract document, the specific reference from the tender documents or the applicable drawing numbers.
- Be double-checked to ensure that all calculations and figures are correct and that they tie up.
Poorly written letters are often not treated with the seriousness they deserve, and letters which use incorrect facts and figures could cause the client to doubt the authenticity of the figures.
Don’t assume the person reading the letter will have a grasp of all the facts, or know what you are talking about.