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Flammable refrigerant limits approved in recount

SWITZERLAND: In a remarkable recount, the IEC has now voted to accept a new standard which will increase the flammable refrigerant charge limit in air conditioning and refrigeration equipment.

There has been no official confirmation as yet, but it appears that Malaysia’s “no” vote on proposals to amend the 60335-2-89 standard has been ruled out as it did not follow voting procedures.

Last month, the Final Draft International Standard (FDIS) vote at the International Electrotechnical Commission (IEC) was defeated by just one vote. The nine opposing votes from the 35 nations voting, meant that the proposal could not enacted as it exceeded the maximum limit of 25%.

It was later found that Malaysia, one of those who voted against, did not include any technical justification as required by IEC directives clause 2.7.3. When this was pointed out to the IEC, Malaysia’s vote was rejected.

The amendment to the IEC 60335-2-89 standard has been in development since 2014. The long-awaited changes, if finally ratified, will see A3 refrigerant charge sizes increase to 500g and A2L refrigerants to 1.2kg.

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Air Balancing: 11 Ways to Avoid Hot and Cold Spots


Air balancing will improve air circulation, increase energy efficiency and enhance the overall performance of your air conditioning and heating system. For a homeowner, it means delivering the right amount of air (hot or cold) to each room making your home more comfortable.

Air balancing for a HVAC technician is the process of testing and adjusting your system using their skill and tools of the trade. They look at your intake and output and adjust accordingly.

Rob Falke, President, National Comfort Institute — an HVAC-based training company, adds “balancing is the single-most important step that can be taken to assure your systems produce comfort and operate efficiently.”

In this article, I’ll share ways you can do-it-yourself to adjust (balance) your airflow for comfort. Then, I’ll share ways that may require a HVAC professional and I’ll help you understand how a technician will go about actually balancing a residential system.

What is Air Balancing?

Air balancing is the process that involves modifying your existing HVAC system to make sure that air is evenly distributed throughout the home. All zones will have the correct amount of heat transfer.

11 Tips on Balancing the Temperatures in Your Home

It’s time to avoid those pesky hot and cold spots and uneven temperatures.  I broke it down into easy, do-it-yourself tips, to harder may need some skill, to it’s time to contact a professional.

  1. Close or Open Your Register
  2. Try a 2 Degree Offset
  3. Check Filters for Cleanliness
  4. Install Window Coverings to Prevent Heat
  5. Avoid Placing Electronic Equipment Near Thermostat
  6. Prevent Airflow Restrictions
  7. Place Thermostat Fan Setting to “ON”
  8. Fix Your Duct Work
  9. Check and Adjust the System’s Blower Fan Speed
  10. Install Extra Return Ducts if Necessary
  11. Use Two Air Handlers

Do it yourself…

1. Close or Open Your Register

Simple yet effective. You have the ability to move the damper blade. It will restrict air flow in the room. But, don’t completely close the vents, it could cause other issues to your HVAC system.

During warm weather temperatures, open registers on your upper floor and partially close registers on first floor and / or your basement. During cold temperatures, reverse the process.

Sierra Air Conditioning put together a handy guide to get your system properly balanced for each season. Try this process first:

Step 1: Set your thermostat to 76-78 degrees. (ideal range to start testing)

Step 2: Leave the temperature alone for at least 24 hours.

Step 3: In areas that are too cool, adjust the vents to allow for less air flow.

Step 4: Adjust in small increments to feel what works for your comfort.

Step 5: Re-check your adjustments (24 hours later) to feel if you reached the desired temperature.

Step 6: Continue until you reach your ideal temperature.

2. Try a 2 Degree Offset

If you’re in a two-story home and have two thermostats, set the temperatures to have a 2 degree off-set.

Here’s what I mean…

Set the thermostat at a 2 degree difference for the floors. For example, upstairs could be set at 74 degrees and downstairs at 72. This will help with uneven temperatures.

3. Check Filters for Cleanliness

There are numerous reasons to keep your filters clean…

  • Improves your air quality – cleaning the debris that builds up on your filters will aid with the flow of air.
  • Increases the efficiency of your furnace – reduced air flow through your heating and cooling system can cause your heat exchange to overheat and shut off too quickly. Keep the filter clean and it will aid in the efficiency of your furnace.
  • Extend the life of your HVAC system – would you believe the most common reason a HVAC breaks down is due to a dirty filter? A dirty filter makes your system work harder causing it to overheat.
  • Help keep energy costs down – Heating your home uses more energy and costs more money than any other system in your home — typically making up about 42% of your utility bill. If your filter is not clogged your system will run more efficient. This alone will help keep your energy costs down. When you regularly change your filter, you can save from 5 to 15% on your bills.

4. Install Window Coverings to Prevent Heat

Your windows will impact the comfort level in each room. Windows without drapes, blinds, shades etc. can heat up a room faster before a thermostat has the time to turn on and add relief.

Window coverings can make a difference in the overall appeal and comfort level. They also can help improve energy efficiency. In cooling seasons, about 76% of sunlight that falls on standard double-pane windows enters to become heat.

5. Avoid Placing Electronic Equipment Near Thermostat

Electronic equipment creates a lot of heat and can really affect your comfort. Nowadays with the addition of large screen TV’s and computers, the distribution of heat in the room can change and may require adjustments to your vents.

This is typically noticed if you have a room air conditioner. The thermostat can pick up heat from appliances which can also cause your A/C to operate longer.

6. Prevent Airflow Restrictions

Do not cover registers with furniture or items that will restrict air flow. When you block a vent with furniture your system has to work harder. Vents are there to supply free flow of air.

Here’s a quick fix from Integrity Air:

“Your vents need 18 inches of space. Rearrange your furniture and hem your curtains so you can provide them with the air flow they need. If you have no other choice, get a magnetic air deflector so that the air blows away from the nearby furniture.”

Deflectors can redirect the air flow keeping the intended air circulation.

7. Place Thermostat Fan Setting to “ON”

Your fan setting can have an impact on your indoor air quality and comfort level. Most systems have two fan settings: On and Auto.

By utilizing the “ON” setting, the fan will blow continuously which will filter and always be replacing your indoor air. This in turn, will keep the air steady. In using the auto position, your air can become more stagnant.

Both come with pros and cons. When flipping to the On setting, you may see an increase in your utility bill.

Bonus Do-it-Yourself tips…

Watch as Dave Mars, Columbia Water & Light describes the importance of balanced air flow in a heating and cooling system.

Making sure your vents are working properly and preventing leaks in ducts will help save money and energy.

Next up: Not so do-it yourself air balancing tips…

8. Fix Your Duct Work

Fix any duct work damage and or defects. Problems with the duct work can cause uneven distribution.

If the duct air flow system is out of balance you will find that when heating, some rooms are not warm enough while others are too cool. While in air conditioning mode, you’ll find similarly that some rooms are not cool enough while others are too warm.

Depending on your skill you could:

  • fix loose duct joints by refitting and sealing the junction.
  • look for ductwork with sharp turns
  • insulate or seal the ducts

Always best to contact a HVAC professional.

9. Check and Adjust the System’s Blower Fan Speed

Switching the fan speed can be easy if you know what you are doing.

Hunker gives a step by step tutorial, “How to change air handler fan speed” from disconnecting the power to testing the unit.

The steps include…

  • disconnecting the power
  • locating the blower motor and wiring
  • identifying the speed wires
  • changing the active speed wire
  • testing your HVAC system

10. Install Extra Return Ducts if Necessary

“A second return duct can lower static pressure if the airflow bottleneck is on the return side.”

Blake Shurtz, Greiner wrote an informative article on Adding a Second Return is Almost Always a Good Idea.

11. Use Two Air Handlers

“If a single air handler is used for both heating and cooling, a basement located air handler will have an easier time pushing warm air up into higher floors of the home than it will pushing cool air up into the same spaces during the cooling season.

(Warm air rises through a building by convection while heavier cool air tends to fall).

Increased fan speed for cooling operation or booster fans may help. To avoid this problem some HVAC designs use two air handlers, placing the second unit in the attic or ceiling above the uppermost floor.”

Air balancing is a method of testing your heating and cooling system to spot any problems that are causing uneven airflow or negative air pressure. By doing this, every room in your home will be as comfortable as possible with the equipment you have.

To check the air balance, HVAC technicians will need to test your system’s performance.

“Find the tonnage or heating output to determine required system airflow. Divide the total system airflow so each room has its share. This can be done using Manual J or one of several estimating techniques, including calculating air changes.”

That’s just the start at where a HVAC expert will begin.

An air technician runs diagnostic tests on your ductwork and other systems. They run a TAB – testing, adjusting and balancing.

Some of the air flow tips are easy and can be done today.

Chemours works with Carrier on long-term refrigerant options

USA: Chemours says it is working with Carrier Transicold in Europe to adopt one of its long-term low GWP alternatives for transport refrigeration.

Carrier Transicold Europe, located in Rueil-Malmaison, France, is planning to replace R452A in transport refrigeration in 2021. Although R452A has only been offered by Carrier as a lower GWP alternative to R404A since 2015, its GWP of 2140 means it was never going to be a viable long-term solution.

Chemours Opteon XL range of refrigerants currently includes R454C (Opteon XL20) and R454A (Opteon XL40) as potential replacements for R404A. Both are “mildly flammable A2L refrigerants.

With a GWP of 146, R454C is the lowest GWP Opteon replacement for R404A and R22 in new equipment designs. It is a blend of 78.5% of the HFO R1234yf and 21.5% R32.

R454A is also made up of the same components, but with a higher proportion of R32. This is said to give it a greater overall performance and higher cooling capacity, but with a higher GWP of 238.

Chemours says it is actively engaged with Carrier Transicold Europe in working closely with regulatory and research groups to support the use of its Opteon XL refrigerants through proper equipment design and training based on applicable codes and standards. 

Stressing the importance of transport refrigeration to the viability of the global cold chain, Chemours Fluorochemicalsvice president Diego Boeri said: “As the European F-gas regulation continues to move the HVACR industry toward more environmentally sustainable solutions, it is critical to provide lower GWP options to equipment manufacturers around the world.” 

“Carrier is committed to providing efficient, sustainable solutions for its customers,” said Bertrand Gueguen, President, International Truck Trailer, Carrier Transicold. “The selection of a low-GWP refrigerant is the next logical step in the evolution of our industry,” said Bertrand Gueguen, president, international truck trailer, Carrier Transicold.

Carrier Transicold has previously stated its commitment to CO2 as the optimum refrigerant alternative for R134a in its container refrigeration units.

Bathroom Exhaust Fans: A Homeowners Guide


This guide has everything you need to know about your bathroom exhaust fans.


Types and costs.

And resources that cover everything related to bathroom fans.

In other words:

It’s a one-stop-shop for homeowners looking to understand, purchase, and install their bathroom fans. From safety to odor control, there are many reasons why having bathroom exhaust fans in your home are an essential necessity.

Continue reading “Bathroom Exhaust Fans: A Homeowners Guide”

Air Conditioning Maintenance: The Ultimate Guide (2019 Update)


You rely on your air conditioning system to keep your home cool and comfortable, but in order for that to happen, your A/C system requires regular maintenance to function efficiently.

Just like any other home appliance, it’s normal for your air conditioning unit to experience some wear and tear from regular use and develop mechanical problems at some point during its lifetime.

Continue reading “Air Conditioning Maintenance: The Ultimate Guide (2019 Update)”

Reamer Tool

The drill does not produce the correct hole size some time with the good surface finish. A hole with precision size can be produced with a good finish off a pre-drilled hole using a reamer tool. The process of the enlarging hole is called reaming.

The reamer is commonly used to remove the minimum amount of metal (100 to 150 micron for rough reaming and 5 to 20 micron for fine reaming) from the hole. During reaming operations, the job should be properly supported and rigidly held. A stock wrench of appropriate size for holding the reamer is used. The reamer must be kept in its correct position about the job. It must be rotated slowly, and excessive feed must not be given. It should always be-be turned in the cutting direction. Sufficient amount of cutting fluid should also be used. When removing the reamer, it must be turned in the cutting direction. Reamers with blunt or chipped edges must not be used.

Adjustable hand reamer tool

Various kinds of reamers are classified and described as under:

  1. Hand Reamer
  2. Machine reamers
  3. Taper reamer
  4. Spirally fluted reamer
  5. Straight fluted reamer
  6. Parallel reamer
  7. Adjustable reamer
  8. Expanding reamer

Some common types of the reamer used in fitting workshops are discussed as under.

1. Hand Reamer:
It is operated by hand to finish the holes and remove its ovality. Its cutting edges are backed off in the same manner as those of twist drills to give suitable clearance. It is made up of carbon or high-speed steel material. It is used for excellent internal turning in the hole by placing a tap wrench on the square end of the reamer.

2. Machine Reamer:
It is designed for slow speeds for use on drill presses, lathes, vertical milling machines, etc. It is chamfered on the front side of cutting edge. It possesses straight or tapered shanks and comprises of either straight or spiral flutes.

3. Taper reamer:
It is widely used for finishing taper holes smoothly with precision. It is also used to provide a taper to a drilled hole when a taper pin is to be used. It is performed with either straight or spiral flutes. It has spaces ground into the cutting edges or teeth to prevent overloading the entire length of each tooth of the reamer. These spaces are staggered on the many teeth to help in stock removal.

4. Spirally fluted reamer:
It performs greater shearing action than one with straight flute.

Trump could restore credits for R1234yf in car ac

USA: The Trump administration is reported to be planning to restore  compliance credits for US automakers that could encourage greater use of low GWP refrigerant R1234yf in car ac systems.

In one of its proposal for a rollback of Obama-era clean car rules, the Trump administration had suggested eliminating compliance credits for automakers that install less-polluting air conditioners in their vehicles.

The Corporate Average Fuel Economy (CAFE) standards, introduced in the US in the 70s, seek to improve the average fuel economy of cars and light trucks. Manufacturer compliance with the regulations standards is calculated in credits. The use of a low GWP refrigerant like R1234yf gains credits under the regulations.

Starting with model year 2011, manufacturers have been able to trade credits with other manufacturers and transfer credits within their own fleets, which provides additional compliance flexibility.

Quoting an unnamed source “with knowledge of the matter”, the E&E News reports that the administration plans to restore the credits after hearing from “concerned” air conditioning and refrigeration companies.

Honeywell and Chemours, major manufacturers of R1234yf, both submitted comments to the US Environmental Protection Agency on October 26 last year setting out their objections to the proposed rule to amend the existing standards.

The Ultimate Carbon Monoxide Guide [What You Need to Know]


Carbon Monoxide is difficult to detect. It’s been coined the “silent killer” for a reason. It doesn’t have a smell, color, or taste.

It can be found in your home from your fireplace, gas ranges and furnaces. The build-up indoors can poison people and their pets who breathe it. In a five year span, 2010-2015, a total of 2,244 deaths resulted from unintentional carbon monoxide poisoning, with the highest number of deaths each year occurring in winter months.

As a licensed heating and air conditioning company, our commitment encourages us to share the consequences of this deadly gas and ways to help prevent carbon monoxide poisoning in your home.

Let’s get started.

What is Carbon Monoxide?

Carbon monoxide (CO) is an odorless, colorless toxic flammable gas.

What is Carbon Monoxide Poisoning?

When you breathe CO, it harms the ability of your blood to transport oxygen. The poisoning is a result of not receiving the adequate oxygen… or asphyxiation.

Symptoms and Signs of Carbon Monoxide Poisoning


image credit: CO toxicity symptoms, WikiMedia Commons

John Cunha, DO, FACOEP, an Emergency Medicine Physician, lists the CO symptoms from a headache, dizziness, and nausea to impaired judgment, visual changes and walking problems. The list is quite comprehensive.

If you suspect your symptoms are directly related to carbon monoxide, turn off the source (if you are aware of the source), move to fresh air and get away from your home as quickly as possible and call 911.

It is worth mentioning that carbon monoxide is slightly lighter than air, so it potentially rises. The scientific way of looking at it according to Healthy Building Science

“CO indoors is usually generated from incomplete combustion (heat source) and therefore traveling in a warm air stream. Warm air is more buoyant and does rise.” 

What Can Cause this Deadly Gas in Your Home / What Causes a Leak?

Household appliances ranging from boilers, heating systems and gas fires can be sources of carbon monoxide gas. Even running your car engine in an enclosed space can cause CO.

Accidental exposure to blocked flues and chimneys, which prohibits the gas from escaping can cause toxic levels.

Treatments for Carbon Monoxide Poisoning

According to the Mayo Clinic, immediately breathing pure oxygen to replace the CO with oxygen in your blood is the first step in your road to recovery.

In severe cases, hyperbaric oxygen therapy rooms are used.

“This therapy involves breathing pure oxygen in a chamber in which the air pressure is about two to three times higher than normal. This speeds the replacement of carbon monoxide with oxygen in your blood.”

Tips to Prevent Carbon Monoxide Poisoning

Relaxed young woman at home with raised arms

Tip 1

Check Your HVAC Vents for Proper Airflow

Throughout the year, furniture is often moved around and new furniture is brought into the home. Double-check around your house to make sure that nothing is blocking your heating vents.

Blocked vents are not only useless since heat can’t get out, but they can also drive your heating up. In addition, a blocked vent can result in an overheated furnace.

Check both your supply registers, heat blows out of these, and your return registers, the air is drawn into these.

Do you ever close vents in unused rooms to save money?

The Energy Vanguard Blog did an excellent and comprehensive job at explaining why you really shouldn’t close those vents. They went on to clarify unintended consequences of closing your vents.

In a nutshell, it can do more harm than good. A few of the after-effects are:

  1. Increased duct leakage
  2. Comfort problems because of low airflow
  3. Cracked heat exchanger, with the potential for getting carbon monoxide in your home
  4. Condensation and mold growth in winter due to lower surface temperatures in rooms with closed vents

Tip 2

Install Carbon Monoxide (CO) Detectors and Alarms

Carbon monoxide detectors are a lot like smoke detectors. The difference – they detect levels of carbon monoxide rather than looking for smoke and fire.

You must consider installing CO detectors in your home. Because CO is both poisonous and odorless, it is vital that you ensure your home, family, and pets are safe from this toxin.

Safewise, home security experts, put together an awesome Carbon Monoxide (CO) Detector Buyers Guide. They cover the best detectors, from basic to smart devices, available on the market.

The guide also explains where to install and how to maintain your detector.

Also be sure to call a HVAC professional to investigate and resolve any issues.

Protect America, committed to providing every home with security solutions wrote a step-by-step guide on:

How to Test Your Smoke and Carbon Monoxide Detectors

Both alarms should be tested once a month at minimum or according to the manufacturer’s instructions. The NFPA (National Fire Protection Association) warns consumers that the “actuation of your carbon monoxide alarm indicates the presence of carbon monoxide (CO) which can kill you.”

NFPA also states the fact:

“A person can be poisoned by a small amount of CO over a longer period of time or by a large amount of CO over a shorter amount of time.”

Again if you sense you’re threatened by CO, be sure to call emergency services (fire department or 911) and immediately move to fresh air.

Tip 3

Schedule Regular Maintenance

Have your HVAC system and any other gas or oil burning system or appliance serviced by a qualified technician yearly.

The fumes from heaters and ovens, if not working properly or used the wrong way, can cause a life-threatening situation.  A pre-season furnace cleaning and check-up by a trusted professional can alert you to potential problems or just confirm that your system is healthy and ready for winter.

A qualified technician will check for safety and operation, ventilation, and mechanical maintenance. With regular maintenance and a thorough annual inspection, a typical furnace will last for 20 years or more.

If you notice any strange odors or noises during the course of the winter, it may indicate a problem developing, and it should be addressed immediately to avoid total furnace failure or serious injury.

Tip 4

Replace Your Batteries Twice a Year

Make a commitment to change the batteries twice a year. Make it easy on yourself, whenever it’s time to spring forward or fall back (change the time on your clocks), replace your batteries.

Tip 5

Don’t Run Your Vehicle Inside Your Garage – Ever

Some people believe if the garage door is open, it’s fine to run the car.

According to T.H. Greiner, Ph.D., P.E. Agricultural Engineer, “the extremely high concentrations of carbon monoxide produced by an engine can raise CO concentrations in a closed building so quickly that a person may collapse before they even realize there is a problem.”

“Proven studies have shown CO concentrations reach the Immediately Dangerous to Life and Health (IDLH) concentration of 1,200 parts per million (ppm) in only 7 minutes when a small 5 horsepower gasoline engine is run in a 10,000 cubic foot room.”

Iowa State University conducted a study and found warming up a vehicle for only 2 minutes can raise CO concentrations.If you need to warm your car, remove it from the garage before starting it.

Tip 6

Do Not Heat Your Home With Your Gas Oven

While it may seem like a handy alternative, never use your oven to heat your home. An overworked, unattended oven can cause an explosion, as it is simply not built to run for extended periods of time.

Deadly CO gas can be given off from the gas flame that is intended to heat the oven.

Tip 7

Be Cautious When Using Fuel-Burning Space Heaters

Space heaters require regular attention while in use. The maximum temperature of the unit should be regulated and all materials should be kept at least three feet away from the unit.

Bear in mind that space heaters account for approximately one-third of home heating fires and 80 percent of home heating-related deaths every year. Never forget to turn off portable heaters when leaving the house or going to bed.

Only use space heaters in well-ventilated areas. Any space heater (fuel or electric) can be a fire hazard if not used properly and should be used with caution.


Leading causes of carbon monoxide in your home can be from faulty furnaces, water heaters, stoves, and fireplaces. It’s critical to take the necessary precautions to keep a carbon monoxide free home. It could be a simple venting problem. If left unchecked, it could escalate into a carbon monoxide problem.

Have your HVAC inspected and cleaned every year by a professional. With proper maintenance, your furnace will work more efficiently, and save you money on expensive energy costs and most importantly…

Keep your family safe.


Washington state to introduce HFC refrigerant bans

USA: Washington state lawmakers have passed House Bill 1112, which phases out the use of HFC refrigerants.

The bill was passed by 30 votes to 19 by the senate legislature on Monday, and now merely requires signing by Washington state governor Jay Inslee.

The bill will phase out the use of hydrofluorocarbons in various applications in Washington, in a manner similar to the regulations that were recently vacated by the Environmental Protection Agency.

“Because the impacts of climate change will not wait until congress acts to clarify the scope of the environmental protection agency’s authority, it falls to the states to provide leadership on phasing out hydrofluorocarbons,” the bill says. “Doing so will not only help the climate, but will help American businesses retain their positions as global leaders in air conditioning and refrigerant technologies.”

The move follows the state of California, which enacted unilateral prohibitions on high GWP HFCs on January 1 through the California Cooling Act. Both states are members of the US Climate Alliance, a bipartisan coalition of 23 governors committed to reducing greenhouse gas emissions consistent with the goals of the Paris Agreement.

Is Your Construction Correspondence Losing You Variation Claims or Projects?


Good communication in construction is essential. Many problems arise because of poor communication, or when our messages are misunderstood.

Unfortunately many in construction don’t realize how important it is to be able to communicate properly. Many don’t see the necessity of being able to write properly. Yet, project managers have to write letters all the time. Some of these letters could literally be worth millions of dollars. Why wouldn’t we want to put the effort into producing a clear and succinct letter that will convince our clients and customers to award a project to our company, or grant the variation claim we’ve submitted.

So let’s have a quick English lesson – a lesson on writing project letters!
Letters should:

  • Have a date.
  • Have a unique reference number.
  • Be addressed to the correct person (the contract normally specifies who that person is, as well as who should be sent copies. If you’re unsure contact the company to find out who the right person is). Oh, by the way, do spell their name correctly – you don’t want to annoy the person before they’ve even started reading your letter!
  • Have a heading, including the project reference name and number (letters to the client should use the reference name and number in the contract document), and a second heading line containing the subject matter.
  • Have an introduction, normally a brief overview of the subject within the letter.
  • Include the body, containing the facts and supporting information (where the supporting information is lengthy or includes numbers, calculations, and diagrams, consideration should be given to inserting these as appendices, and including only the summary of the documents in the body of the letter, referring the reader to the relevant appendix or attachment).
  • Have a conclusion which summarises the facts and indicates the required future course of action.
  • Be logical – state the facts simply and in a logical manner that is easy to follow. Don’t assume the person reading the letter is familiar with the project, or discussions that have occurred on the project.
  • Be confined to one topic, or a few similar topics. Rather write a new letter for a different unrelated topic.
  • Be concise and in simple language. Avoid lengthy sentences.
  • Not be contradictory.
  • Not use emotive language. Don’t get emotional or abusive. Simply state the facts. You don’t want to later regret the things you wrote.
  • Be checked for spelling and typographical errors (if you know your grammar is poor request, someone, to check the letter). As a young project manager, my manager always checked variation claim letters before I submitted them to the client. Frequently they came back with multiple errors highlighted in red ink – yes, it did feel like I was back at school, but they were important lessons.
  • Be arranged in easily readable paragraphs. Don’t just ramble on, with one thought leading into the next one.
  • Avoid using slang.
  • Ensure that when acronyms and abbreviations are used that these are explained, or are clearly understood by the reader and that they are used consistently in the letter.
  • Be numbered correctly and consistently when it’s required.
  • Use consistent text (resist the urge to use text that is in capitals, bold, in color or in italics to highlight a point).
  • Use exclamation and question marks sparingly.
  • Quote the correct clauses from the contract document, the specific reference from the tender documents or the applicable drawing numbers.
  • Be double-checked to ensure that all calculations and figures are correct and that they tie up.

Poorly written letters are often not treated with the seriousness they deserve, and letters which use incorrect facts and figures could cause the client to doubt the authenticity of the figures.

Don’t assume the person reading the letter will have a grasp of all the facts, or know what you are talking about.

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